Saturday, March 31, 2018

Surnames associated with the Catawba and Associated Bands


I promised a friend I'd make a list of surnames associated with the eastern Siouan Peoples. Here is a beginning. It was taken from -- 
http://archive.org/stream/annualreportofbo1948smit/annualreportofbo1948smit_djvu.txt (1)

There are other lists of surnames not included in this list. I will add them in the next few months. Most of this writing starts with information taken from that 1948 Smithsonian article. Parts are added as seems appropriate.

1948 was before the state recognition process had begun. Some of these groups are now state recognized and some aren’t. Many groups were known by different names in 1948 and some that are state recognized today were not even mentioned in 1948. Although this article mentions the Catawba, they do not list any “Catawba” surnames! It does list surnames of some of the bands associated with the Catawba, and I have other sources for the surnames they neglected to mention in that 1948 Smithsonian document.

Please remember most ancestors of ALL the surnames are of European origin. The fact that you share a surname is just an aid and not proof of Native American ancestry. This report also lists the state and county where these people can be found. I tell everyone that I help they must map a name, with a date and a location. Once you can match through genealogical records your proven ancestor was in a i.] location, with a ii.] surname associated with a tribe during the iii.] timeframe they that tribe lived there, you still haven’t proven you descend from them. There is one more thing you can do – you can take an autosomal DNA test. If iv.] x-chromosomal DNA that is Native American in origin is found in your DNA, there is a good chance you might have had an ancestor from that tribe.

Some groups I list as Siouan speakers (Catawban) may have been instead Tuscaroran  in the north or Cherokee or Creek in the South. The Yamassee, Westo, Natchee, Apalachee and others vanished from history, but it is known some survivors of many groups survived, and their blood might also reside in many of these people. Many of the tribes that disappeared were made into slaves, and their blood too, might reside in some of the triracial peoples found amongst most of these groups. X-chromosomal DNA test results might tell us a little about our lost ancestors, as well. We might be able to prove a triracial ancestry, but this leave us with more questions that answers.

If you can map several ancestors to several locations with several surnames in your family’s history, you might want to look at all the tribes involved. Unless you can meet the criteria for tribal membership, you may not be able become a tribal member. But you can learn their history and culture, if you like. This is just the beginning. I have other surnames from other sources. From time to time I’ll be adding them. This is just the first installment.

I. North/South Carolina Border


A. History of the Region's American Indian Peoples
When you look at the counties and communities mentioned, these people appear to like within a county or two surrounding Charleston. At the time of the “War of Jenkins Ear” between the English Colonies of Georgia and South Carolina on one hand, and Spanish Florida on the other in the late 1730s and 1740 or so, we have maps showing the region as being settled by “Settlement Indians”. Many of these Indian peoples came from tribes that no longer existed. Either the slave trade had taken them, or disease had. Their ancestors might have been Apalachee, Yamassee, Westo, Edesto, Sewee, or a host of others that just vanished. A South Carolina state recognized tribe called Waccamaw is in this region today. A tribe with a similar name once was in the region. Many Indian slaves also once resided in the area. The first map shows where the Indian peoples lived previously to the Tuscarora and Yamassee wars (abt 1711-1717). It is below:




The next map is of the same region, but after these wars, many of these bands have disappeared, especially in North Carolina, where the Tuscarora have been reduced to southeastern Virginia surrounded by the Notaway, Saponi and Meheren. Also the region near Charleston has “Settlement Indians” listed instead of known tribes. Vast areas in both Carolinas are now open to White settlement where these tribes had formerly lived.
The region on the mp designated "Settlement Indians", "Waccamaw's", and "Cpe Fear's" is the part of the map where these people previously called "Brass Ankles" are known to live today. They are still here, today. They intermarried with local White's and Blacks for generations until their original race can barely be detected. But they are still with us.

B. Catawbas (1).
The remnants of this tribe are located at a small settlement on the banks of the Catawba River in York County, about 9 miles southeast of Rockhill, the county seat. The settlement is about 1 square mile in area, or 630 acres. The 1930 census returned 159 Indians in York County. Their blood seems to be mostly a mixture of white and Indian.

Although they are directly under the laws of South Carolina they maintain a semblance of tribal government, electing a chief every 4 years. Conditions have long been unsatisfactory with respect to economic and social matters. The State has annually appropriated a sum of money to support the local school, but there are no local social agencies to assist the Catawbas. These Indians cut and haul wood and are employed as day laborers. The women often make clay pottery and pipes. Federal assistance has been given to these Indians in recent years.

Surnames:
Although no Catawban surnames were listed, I have other sources (2)
Blue
Brown
Canty
Clinton
Cook
Gordon
Harris
Heart
Joe
Kegg
Kennedy
Morrison
Mursh
Nettles
Owl
Patterson
Sanders
Stephens
Wahoo (Screech Owl)
Williams

Muriel H. Wright mentions some of these, plus a few others (3) 
Scott
Redhead
Ayers

C 1. Croatans (North Carolina) (1) :
South Carolina Counties: Marlboro, Dillon, Marion, Horry, along northeastern borders of the State.
North Carolina Counties:They are found in greatest concentration in Robeson County but occur in considerable numbers in the nearby counties of Bladen, Columbus, Cumberland, Harnett, Sampson, and Scotland.
Siouans or Croatans. — This group is estimated to number upwards of 16,000 persons and is thought to be increasing with greater rapidity than either whites or Negroes. Physical measurements indicate the presence of Indian, white, and Negro types. There is said to be a tendency for the lighter individuals and families to hold aloof from the darker ones just as in the case of the Nanticokes and the Narragansetts. 

Originally dwellers in the swamplands of the Lumbee River, they have become successful tenant farmers cultivating cotton, tobacco, and corn. The State has recognized their special status and they are endowed with a separate school system from both whites and Negroes. They have their own churches. Intermarriage with either Negroes or whites is forbidden by law and custom. 

Surnames:
Allen.
Bennett.
Berry.
Bridger.
Brooks.
Brown.
Butler.
Chapman,
Chavis.
Coleman.
Cooper.
Cumbo.
Dare.
Graham.
Harris,
Harvie.
Howe.
Johnson,
Jones.
Lasie.
Little.
Locklear.
Lowry.
Lucas.
Martin.
Oxendine,
Paine.
Patterson.
Powell.
Revels,
Sampson.
Scott.
Smith,
Stevens.
Taylor.
Viccars.
White.
Willis.
Williamson,
Wood.
Wright.

C 2. Today These People are Called Lumbee Indians
These people have been known under many names. They were originally discovered living in the old homelands of the Cheraw and Pedee Indians. They were once called Cherokee, Croatan, Siouan, and today are known as “Lumbee” Indians. In the days of “separate but equal” schools they were given their own schools, that were known as “Indian” schools, in North Carolina. They have been called “Indian” for generations. However some families claim a Tuscarora heritage. These tribes are all mentioned during the French and Indian War in the 1750s and 60s.  From the Revolutionary War on we hear very little about them. A few surnames reappear as “Indian” during the Civil War 1861-1865. In the 1880s more was written about them. They were called “Croatan” by whites who wanted there to be survivors amongst the people of the lost colony of Roanoke. Then they became recognized by the Congress of North Carolina however they were called Cherokees. By now it was early in he 20th century. The Cherokee in Western North Carolina protested to calling these Indians in Robison County “Cherokee” and these Indians in Robison County also knew they were not Cherokee – they were given that name by politicians.  In 1933 they wanted to change the name to Cheraw, with one man stating his grandmother was a Pedee Indians and his father’s father was a Cheraw. But some said they were not Cheraw either, so the name “Siouan Indians” was used. A faction of the tribe said they were NOT Siouan either, but rather Tuscarora. Eventually a name was chosen, Lumbee Tribe. After the nearby Lumber River. (4)

D. Brass Ankles, etc. (South Carolina): 
Counties:
Charleston, Colleton, Dorchester, Berkeley, Orangeburg, and Clarendon, coastal and adjacent areas of the State.

Surnames:
Boone.
Braveboy 
Bunch.
Chavis.
Criel.
Driggers.
Goins.
Harmon.
Russell.
Sammons.
Scott.
Shavis.
Swett.
Williams.

Other Surnames Not Listed here
Brayboy


II. Tribal People Along the Virginia/North Carolina Border, Usually Associated with the Saponi


A. Cubans (North Carolina and Virginia):
In northeastern Person County on the Virginia border is located a group called Cubans who number
about 400 persons. They also occur just across the State line in Halifax County, Va., around Christie and Virgilina. The chief family names are Coleman, Eps, Martin, Shepherd, Stewart, and Tally. The State of North Carolina maintains an Indian school for these people near High Plains. Near the school the Cubans maintain their own Baptist church. They also maintain their own social lodge. Marriage with either whites or Negroes is unusual on the part of these people. These Person County Indians may be descendants of a small band of Saponi Indians who, according to early census reports, inhabited Granville County, N. C. (from which Person County was later set off).

Surnames:
Coleman, 
Epps.
Martin,
Shepherd,
Stewart.
Tally.

B. Machapunga (North Carolina) :
In northeastern North Carolina in Dare and Hyde Counties and in Roanoke Island are to be found a few Indian remnants of the Machapunga Tribe mixed with white and Negro blood. Their family names are Pugh, Daniels, Berry, and Westcott. Just outside the town of Hertford, N. C, in Perquimans County there is a group of mixed- bloods who are called the Laster Tribe from their most common surname. They have a tradition of descent from a Moorish or Indian mixed-blood sea captain who long before the Civil War married a white woman and settled in this location. They maintain that they were never slaves and have held themselves somewhat aloof from the neighboring Negroes. At the present time they number several hundreds and many have gone westward to Indiana, Nebraska, and other States. In their original settlement they have their own school, church, and stores. Somewhat to the west of Person County in Rockingham County the census of 1930 reports a considerable body of Indians. The identity of this group is not known. Likewise in Nash County, eastward of Raleigh, a small Indian group is recorded in the  census of 1930. In Macon County near the Cherokee country some Croatans are said to have settled.

Surnames:
Berry.
Daniels.
Pugh.
Westcott.

After the Saponi lost their reservation at Fort Christanna, they scattered in several directions. Many remained on the North Carolina/Virginia and still remain there to this day. There is a map I found online. It shows where many of these people now are. Many are in state recognized tribes. The 1948 document only showed two group, but there were others living in the same general area.


Forrest Hazel lists several more surnames associated with the Indian peoples living in North Carolina, on the North Carolina/Virginia border. (5)

Whitmore
Wtkins
Jefferies
Guy
Burnette
Stewart
Bunch
Gibson
Collins
Corn
Jones
Haithcock
Turner
Wilson
Goins
Hickman
Harris
Richardson
Kimmons
Bowden
White
Allen

III. People Associated with the Melungeons

A. Melungeons (Virginia and Tennessee) (1):
Melungeons or Ramps. — In the counties located in the extreme western corner of Virginia are to be found scattered groups of mixed-bloods called Melungeons or Ramps. These people roam the mountain regions of Virginia, southern West Virginia, Tennessee, and Kentucky. [They have recently been shown to be Saponi]. The Virginia Melungeons are found on the mountain ridges such as Copper Ridge, Clinch Ridge, and Powell Valley in Lee and Scott Counties, in the vicinity of Coeburn and Norton in Wise County, near Damascus in Washington County, and in the western Dismal area of Giles County. No estimate of their numbers is available but they probably amount to several thousands. They show dark skins with straight or curly black hair and high cheek bones. Formerly they lived by raising a little corn, hunting, fishing, digging roots, gathering herbs, and doing odd jobs for their neigh- bors. In recent years theyhave taken to mining and cultivation in the better areas of bottom lands. The chief family names of Melungeons in this area are Bolen, Collins, Gibson or Gipson, Freeman, Goins, and Sexton.

Surnames:
Bolen.
Collins.
Denham.
Fields.
Freeman.
Gann.
Gibson.
Goins.
Gorvens.
Graham.
Lawson.
Maloney.
Mullins.
Noel.
Piniore.
Sexton.
Wright.

Lewis Jarvis article, as transcribed by William Grohse, historian of Hancock County, Tennessee
from the Hancock County Times, Sneedville, Tennessee, 17 April 1903. (11) In this article, Jarvis mentions the following Melungeon surnames;
Collins
Gibson
Bunch
Goodman
Bolin
“others not remembered”
Moore
Williams
Sullivan

I can think of a few more off the top of my head --
Moore
Sizemore
Blevins

B. Magoffin County, Kentucky
Some 234 Indians were recorded for Kentucky in 1910. Later census figures do not enumerate as many. Most of the Indians enumerated were in Magoffin and Floyd Counties in the eastern part of the State.
In southern Kentucky on the Tennessee border (in Cumberland and Monroe Counties) is the Coe Clan, a mixed group of part-Indian descent. These people live on Pea Ridge along the Cumberland River in an area bounded partly by that river on the south and west, by Kettle Creek on the east, and Gudio Creek on the north.

They also lived in Breathett, Floyd, Lawrence and Johnson Counties in eastern Kentucky. (12)

Surnames:
Sizemore (12)
Mullins
Perkins
Cole





C. Carmel Indians (Ohio):
There were 435 Indians in Ohio in 1930, 6 percent pure-blood, 20.9 percent mixed, and 73.1 percent not recorded, according to the census. These returns show their presence mainly in the cities of the State, as in Cleveland (Cuyahoga County), Columbus (Franklin County), Cincinnati (Hamilton County), Toledo (Lucas County), and Akron (Summit County) . There were also a few Indians in rural Hardin County who may represent a survival from early times (a few refugees), in the Scioto marshes, and the settlement at Carmel.

There are a number of mixed-blood groups of part-Indian descent in Ohio who are not recorded in the census. The most notable of those is the Darke County mixed-blood group located near Tampico on the Indiana border about 40 miles northeast of Dayton, Ohio. This settlement dates back to the early nineteenth century, and members of the group still hold themselves apart from both Negroes and whites. At present they are said to number about 60 families, and they have their own schools and churches (Methodist).

Near the village of Carmel, Ohio, about 65 miles east of Cincinnati, there is a small group of mixed-blood Indians. They dated back to 1858, when a white man moved here from Virginia with a dozen Negro retainers about the time of the Civil War. The latter mixed with other people who had arrived not long before from Magoffin County in eastern Kentucky and who were reputedly of Indian descent. The present-day Carmel Indians live in shacks on the farmers' lands, where they provide occasional labor and subsist by hunting, sale of ginseng and yellow root, and by their scant stock of chickens and pigs. A few own small plots but the rest have been said to be on relief recently. Many migrated from the area during World War II, but about 50 still remain in the neighborhood. The family names are Nichols, Gibson, and Perkins.

Surnames:
Gibson. 
Nichols.
Perkins.

D. Guineas (West Virginia):
As in previous cases mentioned, the census does not recognize any Indian groups in West Virginia. However, there is a fair-size group of people centering in northern Barbour and southern Taylor Counties in the northeastern part of the State who may lay claim to at least part-Indian ancestry.
These are the "Guineas" whose numbers may range up to 6,000 or 7,000. Small groups of these people are to be found in six or seven other counties in northern West Virginia, in parts of western Maryland, in cities of eastern and northern Ohio (such as Zanes- ville) and in Detroit.
The Guineas present the usual variety found in mixed-bloods, but the white and Indian seem to be most prominent. They have their own Methodist churches and attend segregated schools which are locally classed as "colored." As a class they stay apart from both whites and Negroes and are characterized by the following family names: Adams, Collins, Croston, Dalton, Kennedy, Mayle, Newman, Norris, and Prichard. Their racial classification has furnished considerable difficulty to the local authorities.

Surnames:
Adams.
Collins.             
Croston.
Dalton (Dorton).
Kennedy.
Male or Mayle.
Miner or Minear.
Newman.
Norris.
Pritchard.

IV. Monacans

A. Issues (Virginia):
Piedmont and Blue Ridge Indian mixed-bloods. — Beginning with Rappahannock County in the north and continuing southward along the Blue Ridge through Rockbridge and Amherst Counties and striking directly southward to Halifax County on the North Carolina border we find small colonies of mixed people who claim Indian descent and are most generally called Issues.

This group of about 500 or 600 mixed-bloods is located in the central part of Amherst County about 4 or 5 miles west of the county seat. The principal settlements are on Bear Mountain and Tobacco Row Mountain in the Blue Ridge. At the extreme western end of the county is another mixed group of similar origin derived from Indian, white, and, in some localities, Negro blood. An Episcopal mission for the Issues is located 3 miles west of Sweet Briar College and comprises a school and other facilities.

The typical Issue is a very rich brunette with straight black hair and Caucasian features. The chief family names are Adcox, Branham, Johns, Redcross, and Willis. In the bottoms the Issues raise tobacco, while on the slopes corn and oats are cultivated. They are mostly renters and truck farmers. The white neighbors of these people are said to regard them as mulattoes. The term "Issue" is applied to mixed-bloods of the same type in many of the counties of Virginia.

Surnames:
Adcox.
Branham.
Johns.
Redcross.
Willis.

B. Brown People of Rockbridge County, Virginia
To the northwest of Amherst County in Rockbridge County is a small group located on Irish Creek, not more than 12 miles east of Lexington, Va., and called Brown People. Their number is estimated as over 300 and they show a mixture of white, Indian, and occasionally Negro blood. Like the Issues of Amherst County they are a group apart from both whites and Negroes.

Surnames:
No surnames mentioned

Catawban Peoples Surnames in Indian Territory/Oklahoma and Arkansas
Morgan (6)
Lerblanche -- Indian Pioneer Papers (7)
Gentry – Indian Pioneer Papers (7)
Kegg – (8)
Morrison (3)
Redhead
Heart
Ayers
Kegg/Keggo
LeBlanche
Scott

Heads of 42 families in Qualla in 1848 (8)
Morrison (chief); 1 family
Kegg 4 families
Stevens 3 families
Heart 2 families
Scott 2 families
Kenty 3 families
George 6 families
Harris 8 families
Redhead 2 families
Ayers 5 families
Brown 3 families
Joe 3 families 

Catawba in Georgia (8)
Guy
Jefferies

Kentucky Melungeon Family Surnames Who Came or wanted to Come to Oklahoma Hoping to Be Treated as Indians (9)
Perkins
Baldwin
Cole
Howard
Shepherd
Fletcher

Forrest Hazel listed some Occoneechhi/Saponi tried to sign up on Dawes or Guion-Miller as Cherokee (10)
Guy
Jefferies
Wilson
Gibson


The Research of Richard Haithcock
Richard Haithcock has done some excellent work researching the Saponi Indians. The following was gleaned from his writings.

Therefore I am just going to leave the surnames he came up with in one section alone. It is mostly in chronological order, and not by location

1677 Second Plantation Treaty
Saponi Chiefs
Mastegone
Tachapoake
Monacan Chief
Shurenough
In 1714, Chiefs of the Saponi at Fort Christanna.
Tanhee Soka
Hoontsky
A 1722 treaty mentions the following Saponi
Great George
John Sauano
Ben Harrison
Captain Tom
Pyah (probably Pryor, who is elsewhere mentioned)
Saponey Tom
Tony Mack
Harry Irvin
Manehip


1738 -- Carlson says the following in his PhD Dissertation: “From 1738 on, the Orange County Court records mention various petitions from Alexander Maurchtoon, John Sauna, John Collins, John Bowling, and others, all of whom are described there specifically as “Christian Saponey Indians.” John Sauano/Sauna is mentioned in both the 1722 and 1738 accounts. (14)

1739 -- Saponi camp is mentioned, s. side Nuese River in Craven County, NC
1740 – Tutelo start their migration to Six Nations
1742 -- Saponi are mentioned on Orange County, Virginia
Maniassa
Captain Tom
Blind Tom
Foolish Zach
Little Zach
John Collins
Charles Griffen
Alexander Machartoon
John Bowling
Isaac
Tom.

1743 -- Per Carlson; "The Christian Saponi went south to live near Catawba lands, however by in 1745 they were back in Virginia, in Louisa County, near to their former lands in Orange County, in the mountains south of Rapidan Station. The Christian Saponi would reside in the area for some time and would be noted as “Nassayn” (Saponi for ‘the People’) on 1749-1750 era maps. Names listed living in this area are Sam and William Collins, along men named George and Thomas Gibson, Sam Bunch, Ben Branham, and a few others were charged with by Louisa County court of ‘concealing tithables’


1749 -- Johnson County, North Carolina, on the south side of the Nuese River, at a place called Powell's Run, a 'Saponi Camp' is mentioned
1753 – Tutelo join Six Nations.
1755 – Saponi Indians mentioned in Person Co., NC
1777 -- Saponi mixed bloods who are mentioned on militia rosters in 1777 during the American Revolution. surnames: 
Riddle
Collins
Bunch
Bollin
Goins
Gibson
Sizemore.
In 1784, some old Saponi families are still living in Brunswick County, Virginia, near the location of the former Fort Christana. Surnames:
Robinson
Haithcock
Whitmore
Carr
Jeffreys
Guy.
1827 -- Hathcock mentions the following:
“The Saponi/Christanna Indians by 1827 were being documented or recorded as Catawba by their friends, neighbors and officials in the Department of the interior. He provides 2 quotes. I.] “If they descended from Indians at all, they were likely Catawba and lived in Eastern North Carolina.” and ii.] “It is a region much more likely to have been occupied by Indians from Virginia or by the Catawba Indians who ranged from South Carolina up through North Carolina into Virginia.” He mentions the surnames of these families;
Hathcock
Dempsey
Jefferies
Guy
Johnson
Collins
Mack
Richardson
Lynch
Silvers
Mills
Riddle 
Austin
Hedgepath
Copeland
Stewart
Harris
Nichols
Shepherd
Gibson
Coleman
Martin
Branham
Johns
Taylor
Ellis
Anderson
Tom
Ervin
Bowling
Valentine
Goens
Sizemore
Bunch
Coker
Rickman, 
Whitmore
Mullins
Perkins
Harrison
Holley
Pettiford.

Saponi names mentoned by Richard Hathcock
Heathcock mentions some 79 Saponi names. Some are full names, some are just given, and some are just surnames. Here is that list:
Chief Mastegonoe, Chief Manehip, Chief Chawka, Chief Tanhee, Seko, Chief Tom, Chief John Harris, Captain Harrry, Captain Tom (Chief Tom and Captain Tom are perhaps the same person), Ned Bearskin, Ben Bear Den, Pyah, Pryor (probably the same), Manniassa, Dick, Harry (perhaps the same as Captain Harry), Isaac, Tom (perhaps the same as captain or Chief Tom), Lewis Anderson, Thomas Anderson,Isham Johnson, Will Matthews, Isaac White) perhaps the same as 'Isaac'), John Hart, Carter Hedge Beth, Sepunis, Cornelious Harris, John Collins, Lewis Collins, Mullins, Charles Griffin, Absalon Griffin, Hannah Griffin, John Sauano, Saponey Tom, Alexander Marchartoon, John Bowlinig, Ben Harrison, Tony Mack, Great George, Little Zach, Blind Tom, Foolish Zach, Hary Irwin, Tom Irwin, John Austin, Sr and Jr, Richard Austin, Tutterow, Dempsey, Miles Bunch, William Thims, Christopher Thims, John Head, Isaac Head, Heathcock, Jeffryes, Guy, Whitmore, Robinson, Carr, Ford, Long, Rickman, Coker, Jones, Richardson, Mills, Stewart, Going, Jackson, Thore, Williams, Branham, Johns, and Coleman. Now these are in addition to some of those already mentioned that are not mentioned here. (13)


Sources:
(1) "Annual Report of the Board of Regents of THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION Showing the Operations y Expenditures , and Condition of the Institution for the Year Ended June 30, 1948; APPENDIX III. FAMILY NAMES OF EASTERN INDIAN GROUPS.
(2) "Catawba Indian Genealogy"; by Ian Watson; The Geneseo Foundation and the Department of Anthropology State University of New York at Geneseo; Geneseo, New York 14454 Series Editor: Russell A. Judkins; Copyright © Ian Watson 1995
(3)  “A Guide to the Indian Tribes of Oklahoma”, by Muriel Hazel Wright; published by University of Oklahoma Press; copyright © by University of Oklahoma Press, 1951, 1986.
4. “The Lumbee Problem – The Making of an American Indian People”; by Karen I. Blu; © 1980 by Karen I. Blu; originally published 1980 Cambridge University Press; afterwards © Nebraska University Press 2001, all rights reserved.
5. OCCANEECHI-SAPONI DESCENDANTS IN THE NORTH CAROLINA PIEDMONT: THE TEXAS COMMUNITY by Forest Hazel. Of Mr. Hazel, the following has been written; “The first paper is by Forest Hazel, a health education advisor with a background in anthropology.  Hazel examines the historical records pertaining to the Occaneechi Indians, known to have lived in the vicinity of present-day Hillsborough, North Carolina, at the beginning of the eighteenth century.  As such, his research has direct ties to the archaeological studies of the Siouan Project conducted by the Research Laboratories of Anthropology, UNC-Chapel Hill (Dickens et al. 1987; Ward and Davis 1988).  Hazel traces the Occaneechi from 1701 to the present, providing a link between the archaeological and living populations.”  
6. go here -- https://www.galileo.usg.edu/welcome/?Welcome and enter as “guest”. Scroll down to #86, “Native American documents”. Southeastern Native American Documents, 1730-1842, contains approximately 2,000 documents and images relating to the Native American population of the Southeastern United States from the collections of the University of Georgia Libraries, the University of Tennessee at Knoxville Library, the Frank H. McClung Museum, the Tennessee State Library and Archives, the Tennessee State Museum, the Museum of the Cherokee Indian, and the LaFayette-Walker County Library. The documents are comprised of letters, legal proceedings, military orders, financial papers, and archaeological images relating to Native Americans in the Southeast. About the image at left.
7. In the 1930s a Dust Bowl era project was begun to record what life was like in the Indian Territory (Oklahoma) before Oklahoma became a state.
8. 54th Congress; Senate Document #144, 1897
9. “Whose Your People?” – Dr. Richard Carlson PhD dissertation
10. “Various Eastern Siouan Communities” by Forest Hazel
11.  The surnames are mentioned in his 1903 newspaper article. He wrote that to counter the false stories that the Melungeons were Portuguese. William Grohse, transcriber of the newspaper article, was to have reported that Lewis Jarvis was a leading lawyer from Sneedyville in Northeast Tennessee. He said Jarvis was born in Scott County, in Southwestern Virginia, on October 26th, 1829. Jarvis wrote of the Melungeons; “They have been misrepresented by many writers.” Jarvis wanted to set the record straight and let people know who they really were. He also wrote; “They had lost their language and spoke the English very well. They were the friendly Indians who came with the whites as they moved west. They came from the Cumberland County and New River, Va., stopping at various points west of the Blue Ridge. Some of them stopped on Stony Creek, Scott County, and Virginia, where Stony Creek runs into Clinch river.” He also said of the Melungeons; “The white emigrants with the friendly Indians erected a fort on the bank of the river and called it Fort Blackmore and here yet many of these friendly “Indians” live in the mountains of Stony Creek, but they have married among the whites until the race has almost become extinct. A few of the half-bloods may be found - none darker . . .”
12.  Monday, 7th of October, 1901, “The Tennessean”, page 8, a newspaper out of Nashville, Tn.
13. “Tutelo, Saponi,Nahyssan, Monacan; a.k.a.; Piedmont Catawba Tribe of the Ohio Valley, Virginia, Carolina, New York, Pennsylvania, and Six Nations, Ontario, Canada” by Richard Haithcock, publication date November 11, 2004.
14. "Where's Your People?"; a PhD Dissertation given by Dr. Richard Carlson.